Takayama station is the main station of Takayama city located in Gifu prefecture. Due to Takayama was located in Hida province, which is now part of Gifu prefecture, it is widely known as Hida-Takayama.
The station was totally reconstructed and the renconstruction finished in 2018. This modern station welcomes thousands of tourists all over the world. It is very rare for JR to invest into reconstruction of stations which are not functioned as terminal or Shinkansen stops.
Takayama station has only one line, Takayama main line, which connects Gifu station, prefectural capital of Gifu prefecture and Toyama station located in Toyama prefecture which is faced to Sea of Japan. Limited express HIda is running between Nagoya and Toyama which all trains call at Takayama(most of the train terminated at Takayama, therefore connection between Takayama and Toyama is not frequent).
If you are traveling to Takayama from Tokyo, there are two options. First one is to take Tokaido Shinkansen to Nagoya and change to limited express Hida or take Hokuriku Shinkansen to Toyama and change there to Hida. If you are traveling from Kanazawa, change at Toyama and from Kyoto, change at Nagoya.