Timetables in Japan can be a paper timetable which are published monthly by several publishing companies or timetable which you can seen at the stations.
Japanese timetables are definitely much complicated than the ones you see in Europe. The biggest difference is that there are so many types of trains. Limited express, rapid express, express, rapid, semi rapid, local and etc.
Another difference, or annoying thing is that the timetables are usually not having clock-face schedule. For example, services with a half-hourly frequency might leave at 5:15, 5:45, 6:15, 6:45, 7:15, 7:45 and etc. If you can see the above photo, Hakata station does not have clock-face schedule at all. Kodama train departs at 09:05 but not at 10:05. It departs at 10:00 and again at 11:05. Then, not at 13:05, but at 13:00. This can be happened due to the trains can have clock-face arriving schedule at terminal stations.
Anyway, please check the timetable before arriving at the station!