Station is not just a place where you can ride the trains. It is a place where you move to the tourist attractions in Japan. Usually there are bus stops and taxi ranks. Bus stops can be for local buses or long distance buses. Not like in Europe, many Japanese cities do not have bus stations in these cities. It is very common that the long distance buses depart and arrive at the train stations. Therefore transfer from train to bus is much simple than in Europe, but for one exception.
Major stations in Japan have to station exits, and the bus stops can be located near the both exits. Therefore you have you have to know which exit to use.
The exists are normally named after by the direction(north/south/east/west/central). For example, north exit or east exit. However, some stations have the exits named after from the districts. For example, Marunouchi central exit or Yaesu central exit of Tokyo stations. Then, there are stations which have exits named after the streets/avenues. For example, Sakura-dori exit of Nagoya station.
Also, please watch out not to be confused with Kaisatsuguchi - Paid area exit/ticket gate. Japanese stations which have multiple ticket gates also have the names for their ticket gates. These ticket gates are also mostly named after by direction. Therefore if you have to meet someone at the station, please clarify with the person if your meeting point will be the ticket gate or the exit. Exit means OUTSIDE of the station building. Ticket gate(Kaisatsuguchi) is inside the station building.